Part 2 of “homosexuality” 1 Corinthians 6:9 series.


In 2019, Australian rugby union star Israel Folau posted on Instagram, to his 347,000+ fan base, a warning, “drunks, homosexuals, adulterers, liars, thieves, atheists, idolaters, Hell awaits you. Repent! Only Jesus saves” (ABC news, 11 April). This cause an enormous media storm, and led to the eventual dismissal of Folau, followed by a court case. The post, Folau claimed, was an expression of his religious faith. He was posting what God says in the Bible. Although Folau seems to be basing his list on Galatians, it can only be that his incorporation of “homosexuals” is taken either from a certain interpretation of Romans (see my thoughts on this in my series Romans 1: “Against Nature,” homosexuality, and Romans 1:18-3:31”), or 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 (see part 1 of this series “Softies or Passive Homosexuals?”). In Part 1 of this series we have already considered whether the word malakos (μαλακός) could be translated as passive homosexual, and it was found that this is unlikely. One of the curious things about the Folau case was that a lot people assumed that the Bible and in particular that 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 does condemn “homosexuality.” However, in this article we will consider whether it is reasonable to translate arsenokoitai (ἀρσενοκοῖται) as “homosexuals.” The real difficulty is, and this might surprise many, that there is no word that means “homosexual” in Greek. It certainly is not arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης [sg.]). This word is extraordinarily rare and actually first appears in 1 Corinthians 6:9 and then in 1 Timothy 1:10. On both occasions the word is in a list, which makes it extremely difficult to gain a sense of what it means as there is little in terms of context. It does appear numerous times in writings of the church fathers but only as quotations of 1 Corinthians. This doesn’t get us very far except to note that 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 was a favourite of the Greek Church fathers. It is not until Eusebius, the church historian writing in the fourth century, do we have arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) written in a sentence. However, this evidence is tempered by the fact that it is a quotation from an earlier piece of Christian writing, which in turn could be referencing another piece of Christian literature. There is in fact a complicated literary relationship between these three pieces of Christian literature. Lastly, we will consider the Sibylline Oracles, often referenced by commentators, to suggest, it seems, that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) somehow emerged from a Jewish literary context. However, the passage that our word appears is clearly Christian. This means that any chance of interpreting arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) is as elusive as when we began in the first century with Paul.

So how can we work out what arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) may mean?

The first thing we will do is do a general survey of the use of the word. This will tell us something about who was using this word and in what context it was being used in. Next, to gain some idea of what arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) may mean, we will need to observe that it is a compound word, like ‘butterfly’ or ‘watermelon.’  So the first task to see if anything can be gleaned by breaking the word up into its compound parts. However, this may not get as very far as the words that make up a compound word do not necessarily give us any idea of what it means; for instance ‘butter’ and ‘fly’ tells us little about the insect we know as a ‘butterfly.’ We will then consider its use in Polycarp of Smyrna since he comes the closest in the second century in using the word in such a way that it gives us a hint of what it may mean. It is interesting to consider Polycarp’s use of arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) in the context of slurs used in graffiti by youths in his hometown of Smyrna. This will give us some idea of the social context that Polycarp is writing into and why he might be using 1 Corinthians 6:9–10. From here we will move to Eusebius’ use of the word it a work that has a complex literary relationship with at least two other literary sources. Lastly, we will briefly look at the Sibylline Oracles. After we have considered all this evidence, my conclusion will be that discerning what Paul originally meant by using arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) is almost impossible. Certainly there is not enough to warrant a definitive translation of the word into the modern English term “homosexual.” Before we really begin, let’s first read the passage in 1 Corinthians 6. Now I notice that Israel Folau was keen about using the King James version (KJV) of the Bible so we will use this version too. King James Version (1611)[1] 9 Know yee not that the unrighteous shall not inherite the kingdome of God? Be not deceiued: neither fornicatours, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselues with mankinde, 10 Nor theeues, nor couetous, nor drunkards, nor reuilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. It is curious that the KJV does not use the word “homosexuals.” That is because this word did not exist in the English language until the nineteenth century. We have already found in the previous essay (Softies or Passive Homosexuals? 1 Corinthians 6:9 -10) that malakos (μαλακός) was more likely to mean “the soft ones” or “the effeminate” and this agreed with the King James translation of the word. This essay we will investigate “abusers of themselves with mankind” or arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) in 1 Corinthians 6:9.

A General Survey of the Use arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης)

There are a number of challenges that one is faced with when trying to define arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης). The first challenge is that its first occurrence is in 1 Corinthians 6:9, and its second is in 1 Timothy 1:10. After this it appears in Polycarp (AD 69–155/160’s), but here it is an amended quotation from of 1 Corinthians 6:9-10. It does appear in the letters of Ignatius but this is in the longer recession, which dates from the fourth century.[2] It is used in the second century Acta Joannis (or The Accounts of Prochorus and Leucius), but here it seems to be a compilation of words from 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 and 1 Timothy 5:13 (περίεργοι). Indeed, the times when arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) occurs it is appearing in lists that are either a compilation or an expanded form of 1 Corinthians 6:9 (Theophilus (2nd c.), Ad Autolycum 1.2.25), or an amended citation that suits the writer’s purpose (Ignatius, 4th C, Epistle 4.7.2), or it is, more or less, a word for word quotation 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 (Clement of Alexandria (c. 150–c. 215), Paedagogus, Stromata; Origen (184/185–253/254), Dialogus cum Heraclide 10.3; Commentarium in evangelium Matthaei 14.10.39; Fragmenta ex commentariis in epistulam i ad Corinthios 27.58; In Jeremiam (Homily) 20.3.33). It appears in Timothy 1: 10 in a list unrelated to 1 Corinthians 6:9. There is only a hand full of places where the word appears outside of a list. In these places the context gives some indication of the meaning of the word, however, the texts in question are difficult to date and have complicated textual histories. What we can conclude from this survey is that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) is a word only used by Christians. Thus we could conclude that is a piece of Christian jargon. Like all jargon it is a word known to the initiates into a closed group. Jargon can be difficult to break into without special instruction of those who are expert in its use. This leads us to conclude that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) is indeed an elusive word, only known to the community in which it was used. This should alert to the fact that it will be difficult to grasp what the word means.

Arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης): a Compound Word

If we first take arsenokoitai (ἀρσενοκοίται) as it appears in 1 Corinthians, then we can note that it is a noun, it is a plural and it is taking feminine ending. It is a compound word- similar to androgamos (ἀνδρόγαμος) we meet in Vettius Valens’ Appendices ad anthologiarum libros ‘Appendix’ 1.3.71.[3] This word seems to mean “a man-marriage.” The stem ἀρσενο of arsenokoitai (ἀρσενοκοίται) means “male” (LSJ) and κοίτος means “resting place, bed” (LSJ), so together the meaning seems to be “male-bedder.” The plural feminine ending indicates that like μαθητής it is a masculine in gender and therefore in the nominative, thus it is ἀρσενοκοίτης. In Acta Joannis (ὁ ἀρσενοκοίτης) and Ad Autolycum (ἀρσενοκοίτης) it appears this way. This would mean that the masculine ending of κοίτος has been amended. One may wonder why this is the case when ἀνδρόγαμος in Vettius Valens has maintained its original ending. The best that can be said is that arsenokoitai (ἀρσενοκοίται) means some sort of sexual act with a male person. It is not nearly so precise as androgamos (ἀνδρόγαμος), which seems to imply a relationship with a man like a marriage.

Surveying the Use of arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) in Christian Literature

Polycarp of Smyrna

In the above brief survey it was noted that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) occurs in what appears to be citations of 1 Corinthians 6:9. Of most interest among these quotations is Polycarp (AD 69–155/160) in Philippians 5.4–5 because it is the closest citation in time to Paul:

Likewise also let the younger men (νεώτεροι) be blameless in all things; caring above all for purity (ἁγνείας), and curbing themselves from all evil; for it is good to be cut off from the lust of the things (ἀπὸ τῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν) in the world, because “every lust (πᾶσα ἐπιθυμία) warreth against the Spirit, and neither fornicators (πόρνοι) nor the effeminate (μαλακοὶ) nor sodomites (ἀρσενοκοῖται) shall inherit the Kingdom of God,” nor they who do iniquitous things. Wherefore it is necessary to refrain from all these things, and to be subject to the presbyters and deacons as to God and Christ. The virgins must walk with a blameless and pure conscience. (5.4–5)[4]

Although in this passage the translator has put quotation marks beginning at “every lust” and ending in “Kingdom of God” it is strictly not a quote from 1 Corinthians 6. In this passage Polycarp has amended Paul’s verses in 1 Corinthians 6:9–10 to suit his own purposes. He is directing his exhortation to “younger men” and his main concern appears to be their purity (ἁγνείας), exhorting them to abstain from lust. The word purity (ἁγνείας) appears in 1 Timothy 4:12 where the letter writer tells Timothy not to let anyone look down on his youthfulness, but to be an example in a number of virtues one of which is purity. It only appears again at 1 Timothy 5:2 were Timothy is told to treat all women “in all purity.”. The lust that is to be abstained from is not just desire (Philippians 1:23), but a desire similar to what Paul envisaged in Romans 1:24,

Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them. (NASB)

Polycarp’s advice is similar to Paul’s advice in Galatians 5:24,

Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires. (NASB)[5]

Since these desires are concerned with the body and in connection with purity, then Polycarp is exhorting the young men to sexual purity.

Graffiti in Smyrna

A recent discovery of graffiti in a cellar in Smyrna in 2003[6], suggests the Polycarp’s concern is based on the actual preoccupations of young men in his era. The cellar was filled in after an earthquake in 178 CE to provide extra support for the upper stories of the building. Before the cellar has enclosed it was open for public access as there was a spring underneath. The pillars holding up the building were whitewashed and inevitably graffiti appeared. The filling in of the cellar created a time capsule. The surprising thing is that the graffiti is not that much different to modern day graffiti, and it seems most of it was written by young men. There is quite a bit of sexual material varying from drawings of male genitalia, some labelled psōlē, which Bagnall translates as ‘prick’, to written abuse.[7] In Bay 25 testicles are drawn over a fine drawing of the head a youth above which is written πυγίζομαι, “I am being buggered.”[8] In another bay (52) there is some sexual invective, “Friend, has it escaped your attention that you are a bastard?”[9] The dominate preoccupations are sex, sports, public games and drawing figures.[10] Gladiators of various sorts are depicted. It would seem that the preoccupations of young men in the late first and secondary centuries aren’t much different from young men in the 21st. Polycarp has selected three of the words in 1 Corinthians 6:9, which have a sexual connotation, to press home his case that the young men should care for purity and curb themselves from all evil and cut themselves off from lust. Polycarp, by beginning his list with fornicators (πόρνοι), has shaped his list so that the sexual aspects of malakos (μαλακός) and arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) are in view. We saw in our survey of malakos (μαλακός) that the word only has a sexual connotation when the context makes it apparent. So our conclusion here is that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) does have a sexual aspect to its semantic range.

Eusebius’ Preparation for the Gospel

There are three documents in which arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) appears to have occurred and these belong to the third and fourth centuries. I say “appears to have occurred” because only in Eusebius is the Greek actually preserved. The three documents we are concerned about have a complex documentary relationship and these are The Recognitions of Clement, The Book of the Laws of Divers Countries (Book of the Laws of Countries) and Eusebius’ Praeparatio Evangelica (Preparation for the Gospel 4th c.).[11] The Recognitions of Clement (3rd c.?) was originally written in Greek but only survives in a Latin translation, and The Book of the Laws of Countries (3rd c.) was originally composed in Greek and survives in Syriac. How The Recognitions of Clement and Book of the Laws of Countries relate together is a complex question and may never really be answered, but the options are that either one borrowed from the other or they used a common source.[12] Nicole Kelley argues that Recognitions was dependent on a Greek translation of the Book of the Laws of Countries. The reason this is important is because the evidence indicates that Eusebius in the Preparatio Evangelica is also referring to a Greek translation of the Book of the Laws of Countries, which is “practically identical” to Bardaisan’s Syriac Dialogue on Fate (or The Book of the Laws of Divers Countries).[13] So this means that Eusebius is preserving the use of arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) from the third century. If the Recognitions of Clement is relying on a Greek version of Book of the Laws of Countries, then it is likely that Eusebius is using a Greek translation from around the mid to late third century. We will focus on Eusebius’ version since this is the preserved Greek:

ἀπὸ Εὐφράτου ποταμοῦ καὶ μέχρι τοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ὡς ἐπὶ ἀνατολὰς ὁ λοιδορούμενος ὡς φονεὺς ἢ ὡς κλέπτης οὐ πάνυ ἀγανακτεῖ, ὁ δὲ ὡς ἀρσενοκοίτης λοιδορούμενος ἑαυτὸν ἐκδικεῖ μέχρι καὶ φόνου• παρ’ Ἕλλησι καὶ οἱ σοφοὶ ἐρωμένους ἔχοντες οὐ ψέγονται.

ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ ἀνατολῇ ὑβριζόμενοι ἐὰν γνωσθῶσιν, ὑπὸ ἀδελφῶν ἢ πατέρων καὶ συγγενῶν φονεύονται καὶ ταφῆς προδήλου οὐκ ξιοῦνται. (25b-27a)[14]

From the river Euphrates, and as far as the Ocean towards the East, he who is reviled as a murderer, or a thief, is not at all indignant: but he who is reviled for sodomy (ἀρσενοκοίτης) avenges himself even to the death: among the Greeks, however, even their wise men are not blamed for having favourites. In the same East those who suffer outrage, if it become known, are put to death by brothers, or fathers, or kinsmen, and are not thought worthy of burial in open day.[15]

This section is on the strange customs of those who live in the East on the other side of the river Euphrates. In this place a man is not indignant if he is reviled as a murderer or a thief, but he is indignant to the point of vengeful killing if he is reviled as an arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης). Only in the next sentence do we get any indication what arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) may mean. In the next sentence there is an opposing view given that “among the Greeks” even their “wise men are not blamed for having [their] favourites.” So the Greeks would not be indignant by the accusation they are arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης).  The implication is that they would be if accused of theft or murder. In fact, among the Greeks and even among their wise-men (ie the best [or virtuous perhaps] men in their society) they have “their favourites.” The implication seems to be that the sentence is talking about favourites or “one’s love” (ἐράω = “one’s love” LSJ). For example, it is used of both men [16] and women[17] in Strabo in his discussion the customs of Cretans:

 They have a peculiar custom with respect to their attachments. They do not influence the objects of their love (τοὺς ἐρωμένους) by persuasion, but have recourse to violent abduction. The lover apprizes the friends of the youth, three or more days beforehand, of his intention to carry off the object of his affection. It is reckoned a most base act to conceal the youth, or not to permit him to walk about as usual, since it would be an acknowledgment that the youth was unworthy of such a lover. But if they are informed that the ravisher is equal or superior in rank, or other circumstances, to the youth, they pursue and oppose the former slightly, merely in conformity with the custom. They then willingly allow him to carry off the youth. If however he is an unworthy person, they take the youth from him.

The parastathentes, for this is the name which they give to those youths who have been carried away, enjoy certain honours. At races and at festivals they have the principal places. They are permitted to wear the stole, which distinguishes them from other persons, and which has been presented to them by their lovers; and not only at that time, but in mature age, they appear in a distinctive dress, by which each individual is recognised as Kleinos, for this name is given to the object of their attachment (ἐρώμενον), and that of Philetor to the lover (ἐραστὴν). These then are the usages respecting attachments (τοὺς ἔρωτας). (Geography 10.4.21)

Strabo on the pyramids in Egypt, Geography (17.1.33):

Farther on, at a greater height of the mountain, is the third pyramid, which is much less than the two others, but constructed at much greater expense; for from the foundation nearly as far as the middle, it is built of black stone. Mortars are made of this stone, which is brought from a great distance; for it comes from the mountains of Ethiopia, and being hard and difficult to be worked, the labour is attended with great expense. It is said to be the tomb of a courtesan, built by her lovers (τῶν ἐραστῶν), and whose name, according to Sappho the poetess, was Doriche. She was the mistress (ἐρωμένην) of her brother Charaxus, who traded to the port of Naucratis with wine of Lesbos.

So the word used in Praeparatio Evangelica eromenos (ἐρωμένους) means one’s “lover” or “beloved.” So the wise-men “without blame” have their lovers. Given that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) literally means “male-bedder” and Greek wise-men or philosophers were renowned for their male/boy lovers, then the indignation felt by the man from the East is that he is being called a lover of men. Not that it is all that clear that this means precisely “active sexual partner in homosexual sex” as the NIV (2011) would have us believe. Greek philosophers did pursue love interests and the implication of the word eraō (ἐράω) is that the one loved is the object of affection as we can see in the two quotes from Strabo above. The next sentence in Eusebius’ Praeparatio Evangelica implies that those in the East who find that those who are the “beloved” or the object of love are thought of as “those who suffer outrage (ὑβριζόμενοι).” Hubris (ὑβριζ) means to overstep the boundaries of propriety as we saw above in the essay on malakos. It is interesting that it is not the one who has committed the outrage but the one to whom the outrage was directed, who is killed by his relatives and left in an unmarked grave. It would be safe to conclude that the one doing the outrage is an arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης), and given they are parallel with the Greek wise-men (οἱ σοφοὶ), must be ones taking men as lovers. In summary, I suggest that the best definition of arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) as it is used in Praeparatio Evangelica is “a man who has a male lover.” As we have seen, Eusebius is quoting from an earlier translated work, which from Kelley’s discussion would seem to date somewhere around the middle to late third century.[18] This is how far back we can take the use of the noun, arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης), where it has some context other than in a list. The difficulty with this is that this is two hundred years on from Paul and geographically disconnected from his original Corinthian context. The meaning of words can change over time, so all can perhaps say is that this evidence suggests that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) means a man who takes “a male lover.” But this might possibly mean against the man’s will.

Sibylline Oracles

There is one other instance but this is the verb form of arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης). This occurs in a work called the Sibylline Oracles. This work also has a complicated textual history. It seems that it began life as a Jewish work (2nd c. BC –1st c. AD?) and was continually reworked and added to by Christians over the course of a number of centuries. Any particular part of the book is hard to date although it is agreed that the third book is the earliest and is most likely Jewish.[19] The first and second books, which we are interested in, “are a review of world history from the creation to the last judgement, with long stops on the way at the flood and coming of Christ.”[20] Before examining the use of our word in this text it is useful to remind ourselves that nouns and verbs can have different semantic ranges, so we must proceed with caution in making any definitive conclusions of the meaning of a noun based on the use of the verb. Oracula Sibyllina Book 2 Section 2 Line 73, 74

εἰς γενεὰς γενεῶν <εἰς> σκορπισμὸν βιότοιο.

μὴ ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν, μὴ συκοφαντεῖν, μήτε φονεύειν.[21]

Terry’s translation as it appears in Book 2 verse 87:

85 Accursed through many generations he

Who took it unto scattering of life.

Indulge not vile lusts (ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν), slander not, nor kill.[22]

As we can see ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν (trans. above as “vile lusts”), although a verb, is again appearing in a list. It is used in conjunction with those who slander and steal. More broadly the verse appears in a context where the reader is admonished to do the good and avoid the bad, “for every human soul is God’s free gift, And ’tis not right men stain it with vile deeds” (61–63). Verse 87 is then an admonishment against the bad and God has given this admonishment through “many generations.” The context that the word is being used in here is not overtly sexual, so perhaps like malakos (μαλακός) it may have an aspect to its semantic range that is not sexual, but this is difficult to tell. Given our other work on the noun it might be supposed that here the admonishment is not “to bed males.” The chief problem with the Sibylline Oracles is the dating. It is difficult to pin down a date for the section that ἀρσενοκοιτεῖν appears in as it is a Christian addition and this date of writing is uncertain, potentially spanning centuries. [23] So much like Eusebius’ use above, its use in the Sibylline Oracles is beyond the time and context of Paul writing in the first century. Thus the Sibylline Oracles does not take us any closer to narrowing our definition of malakos (μαλακός) and arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης).[24]


To conclude our essay on arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης), it must be acknowledged that the evidence for the definition of this word is slender. There certainly is not enough contextual evidence to gain a sense of the semantic range of the word was we did with malakos (μαλακός). We can safely conclude that word is some sort of vice and that in some contexts it has a sexual aspect to it. But as we saw with malakos (μαλακός), this does not guarantee that the word will always have a sexual aspect and that there is not some semantic flexibility to the word. Only in the three cornered The Recognitions of Clement, The Book of the Laws of Divers Countries (Book of the Laws of Countries) and Praeparatio Evangelica does the word relate directly to men. Thus, it is only in the third century, that we can confidently say that arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) means “a man who has a male lover.” But as we can glean from Eusebius this activity could be considered an “outrage” or an act of hubris, which was considered a crime in Greek thought.[25] My conclusion is that it is inadvisable to translation arsenokoitēs (ἀρσενοκοίτης) as homosexual, a word that only came into the English idiom in the nineteenth century.[26] What Paul was referring to in his list in 1 Corinthians can only be guessed from the evidence. Certainly that it is among a list of vices suggests that is to be considered some sort of vice or crime as were fornication and adultery (a crime under Roman law). The best that can be done is to say “a sexual vice or crime against a man.” This is supported by the evidence from Polycarp. This in no way relates to what we mean by “homosexual” in the 21st century, so it should not be translated using this word. Further Reading: If you’ve found this article helpful you can support my ministry and research by making a contribution (suggested US $5) through paypal @BI4IS

Other Resources by Lyn M. Kidson

Join Lyn’s daily notes on the background of the Gospel of Mark on her Historias blog Historical Notes on the Gospel of Mark (1:1–5) Endnotes Featured picture “Agora First Level Arches” courtesy of [1] [2] “The so-called “long recension” is usually regarded as a 4th-century (perhaps Neo-Arrian) revision consisting of interpolations into the original letters and the addition of 6 spurious letters” from William R. Schoedel notes accompanying Ignatius’ letters on [3] John Boswell who quite rightly notes the difficulties in arriving at the meaning of a compound words without any context (consider pineapple & butterfly), Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality : Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 342ff. [4] Apostolic Fathers, translated by Kirsopp Lake, 1912 (Loeb Classical Library) [5] Cf. Colossians 3:5 [6] Bagnall, S. Roger, Everyday Writing in the Graeco-Roman East (Berkeley, LA; London: University of California Press, 2011), 7–26. [7] Bagnall, Everyday Writing, 11–12. [8] Bagnall, Everyday Writing, 12. [9] Bagnall, Everyday Writing, 13. [10] Bagnall, Everyday Writing, 16. [11] Nicole Kelley, “Astrology in the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions,’ The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 59 (2008): 607–629. [12] Kelley, “Astrology in the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions,” 613–615. [13] The evidence indicates that Eusebius also quotes from this work in Historia Ecclesiastica. [14] K. Mras, Eusebius Werke, Band 8: Die Praeparatio evangelica [Die griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller 43.1 & 43.2. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 43.1:1954; 43.2:1956] from Thesaurus Linguae Graecae® (TLG ®): A Digital Library of Greek Literature, A project at the University of California, Irvine. [15] Eusebii Pamphili: Evangelicae Praeparationis, Vol 3 of 5 (parts 1&2) translated, E.H. Gifford (1903) from [16] Cf. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers (4.421 &22 & 4.6.30 &31) [17] Cf. Cassius Dio, Historiae Romanae 80.16.6; Plutarch, Demetrius 16.4. [18] Since the work is by a pupil of Bardaisan of Edessa (c. 154–222), Philippus, and allowing time for a Greek translation to make its appearance, Kelley “Astrology in the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions,” 612. [19] J.L. Lightfoot, The Sibylline Oracles: With introduction, translation, and Commentary on the First and Second Books. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007, ix. [20] Lightfoot, The Sibylline Oracles, ix. [21] Greek Text: Thesaurus Linguae Graecae® (TLG ®): A Digital Library of Greek Literature, A project at the University of California, Irvine. From [22] Milton S. Terry, Sibylline Oracles: Translated From The Greek Into English Blank Verse. New York: Eaton & Mains; Cincinnati: Curts & Jennings (1899). From; Lightfoot translates it as “No male love, killing, nor malicious charge” The Sibylline Oracles, 315. [23] Gordon Watley says about the dating of the Sibylline Oracles that they were, “composed and compiled from the 2nd century BCE to the 7th century CE by an unknown number of anonymous Jewish and Christian authors who transformed the Greek oracle collection genre into a useful vehicle for Jewish and Christian polemics and apologetics,” “Sibylline Identities: The Jewish and Christian Editions of Sibylline Oracles 1-2.” (PhD diss., University of Virginia, 2010), 1;  For more on Sibylline Oracles see Early Jewish Writings [24] D.F. Wright’s suggestion that the use of ἀρσενοκοίτης here is derived from a possible interpolation from Ps-Phocylides, which in turn derived its admonishment from the Torah is rather tenuous, “Homosexuals Or Prostitutes? The Meaning Of Apσenokoitai (1 Cor. 6:9, 1 Tim. 1:10),” VC 38 (1984): 125–53 (136f). [25] Lyn M. Kidson, “The Rhetorical Strategies of the First Chapter of 1 Timothy: The Relationship of the First Chapter to the Purpose of the Letter,” (PhD diss., Macquarie University, 2017), 235–237. [26] The concept of homosexuality is a modern medical term and one that is certainly not one found in the Greek language. On the modern definition of the term homosexuality see American Psychological Association (APA) style guide for Sexual Orientation. For the absence of the concept of sexuality (as we think of it) in the ancient world see John Dickson’s interview with E. A. Judge here. © April 2020, L.M. Kidson If you’ve found this article helpful you can support my ministry and research by making a contribution (suggested US $5) through paypal @BI4IS